Lumbar pain is a clinical symptom of pathological changes in various tissues. At a young age, muscle spasms and overexertion appear in this way, at an older age - osteochondrosis and its complications. In the elderly, any pain can be seen as a sign of a compression fracture of the vertebral body against the background of developing osteoporosis.
The causes and methods of treatment of low back pain discussed in the article are fact-finding information. This only gives a general idea of what may be going on in your body. But this does not replace the advice of a specialist. If you have any discomfort in the lumbar and sacral area, seek medical attention immediately. It is best to make an appointment with a vertebrologist or neurologist. These doctors have the necessary level of professional competence in the treatment of diseases of the spine.
For these purposes, we recommend that you choose a clinic for manual therapy at the place of residence. Usually there are doctors who have extensive practical experience in working with patients suffering from pathologies of the spine and other parts of the musculoskeletal system.
Before starting treatment for low back pain at home, it is necessary to establish an accurate diagnosis. The fact is that the pain syndrome can be provoked by various pathological reactions. The most common types of violations are:
- the consequences of traumatic impact on bone tissue - fractures and cracks of the vertebral bodies and their processes;
- stretching and microscopic rupture of fibers in ligaments, tendons and paravertebral muscles;
- the formation of hematomas after soft tissue injury - they put pressure on the nerve fiber;
- inflammation - may be due to prolapse of the intervertebral hernia, aseptic reaction to trauma, the introduction of an infectious agent (for example, with tuberculosis of the spine);
- degenerative dystrophic process of destruction of the intervertebral discs;
- ruptures of fibrous rings on discs;
- tissue ischemia against the background of disturbances in the processes of blood supply and innervation;
- compression (for example due to instability of the position of the vertebral bodies or their displacement).
The spine is an anatomically complex structure. It consists of vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs and separate end plates. Around the spine there are longitudinal and transverse connections, paravertebral muscles. Inside the spinal canal, formed by the bodies of vertebrae and arcuate growths, is the spinal cord. This is the central structure of the autonomic nervous system, which is responsible for the functioning of the entire human body. The innervation is due to the radicular nerves extending from the spinal cord through the lateral openings in the vertebral bodies.
The intervertebral disc holds the vertebral bodies at a certain distance, which separates. And thanks to this there is no effect of compression on the radicular nerves and their branches. They do not become inflamed and do not experience ischemia due to impaired blood supply. If in the area of the intervertebral cartilaginous discs there is a decrease in the activity of muscle fiber, then the quality of diffuse nutrition decreases sharply. And cartilaginous intervertebral discs do not have their own blood vessels. This provokes a reduction in their height, compression of nerve fibers and other soft tissues near the spine. Naturally, this process is accompanied by severe pain in the lumbar region.
Then let's talk about the potential causes of pain - diseases and risk factors for their development.
The main causes of lower back pain
So, let's start with the fact that there are very large muscles in the lumbar region. Some of them are responsible for two-legged locomotion, keep the body upright and allow various body movements (inclines, turns, turns, etc. ).
These muscles are made up of myocytes. Which cell is attached to the nerve ending and its own blood vessel - the capillary. With each violation of the innervation or blood supply, muscle work decreases sharply. For example, if a person exposes his lower back to excessive physical activity, then the muscle fiber spasms. In this condition, it is unable to conduct nerve impulses and has a compressive effect on capillaries. There are foci of ischemic reaction and trigger points (places where inappropriate contraction and relaxation of myocytes occur). These conditions can go away on their own. But in most cases, the fibromyalgic pain syndrome can last for several years and requires the help of an experienced chiropractor.
Other potential causes of low back pain include:
- degenerative dystrophic destruction of the cartilaginous fiber of the intervertebral discs (osteochondrosis);
- complications of osteochondrosis in the form of protrusion and extrusion of the intervertebral discs, prolapse of the hernia and its sequestration;
- instability of the position of the discs and bodies of the vertebrae relative to each other in the form of weakness or deformation of the ligament and tendon apparatus;
- displacement of the vertebral bodies by the type of antelista, retrolista or lateroslist;
- curvature of the spine, posture disorder, including thoracic scoliosis, complicated by torsion and curvature of the pelvic bones;
- stenosis of the spinal canal, including due to prolapse of the dorsal intervertebral hernia or displacement of the body of the spine;
- compression fracture of the vertebral body or fissure of its process;
- stretching and tearing of the longitudinal or transverse ligament;
- deforming spondylarthrosis, in which the amplitude of mobility in the projection of the intervertebral joint may decrease;
- destruction of the iliac-sacral joints;
- destruction of the joint between the coccyx and the sacrum;
- tumor and infectious pathologies of the tissues of the spinal cord and spine;
- inflammatory processes in the abdominal cavity and pelvic organs;
- piriformis and cauda equina syndrome.
These are just some of the possible causes of lumbar pain. Remember that only an experienced doctor can make an accurate diagnosis based on examination and additional clinical examinations. That is why you should not engage in self-diagnosis and treatment. This can have sad consequences for your body.
Be sure to contact an experienced doctor, he will determine the causes of lower back pain and prescribe treatment that will allow you to repair damaged tissues without harm to your health.
What are the symptoms to look out for?
Any disease that causes low back pain provokes the appearance of additional symptoms. You need to pay attention to them so as not to waste time and contact a specialist who deals with the treatment of such diseases.
So, let's start with the most common. This is osteochondrosis and its consequences. In such a disease, in addition to pain, there is stiffness of movements, muscle tension in the lumbar region. Difficulty sitting or standing for a long time. I want to take a forced position. In such cases, it is worth arranging a meeting with a vertebrologist.
If the pain spreads to the lower extremities, radiates to the groin, anterior abdominal wall, there is an intestinal disorder, there are areas of tingling in the skin, then it is advisable to visit a neurologist. This means that a nerve fiber pinch has occurred. Only a neurologist will be able to determine at what level the nerve was damaged and how this compression can be quickly and safely eliminated.
Treatment in case the back and lower back hurts due to a violation of the integrity of the tissues is performed by a traumatologist. After restoring the integrity of the tissues, it is necessary to undergo a rehabilitation course with a chiropractor. Therefore, if there is a traumatic effect and then a pain syndrome occurs, then first contact the emergency department.
If you have frequent urination, fever, muscle aches, headache, you should contact your local therapist to rule out urinary tract pathology. If possible, make an appointment with a nephrologist.
In women, low back pain may be associated with genital damage, so a consultation with a gynecologist is necessary. Men are advised to visit an andrologist or urologist. It is also always worthwhile to rule out damage to the tissues of the rectum and lower parts of the colon.
If you have back pain in the lumbar region, an X-ray of the lumbosacral region is prescribed. On it the doctor can see indirect signs of osteochondrosis, deforming spondylarthrosis, protrusion of the disc and others. An MRI scan is needed to confirm or rule out the diagnosis. According to his conclusion, the doctor can diagnose an intervertebral hernia, stenosis of the spinal canal and others. Ultrasound and colonoscopy are performed to rule out pathology of the abdominal cavity and small pelvis.
Treatment of back pain in the lumbar region
The treatment of back pain in the lumbar region needs to be started by eliminating the negative influence factor. If this is a reduction in the height of the intervertebral disc, then it is necessary to stop the compression of nerve fibers and soft tissues around the spine. The easiest way to achieve this effect is during the procedure of manual pulling of the spine. Even after the 2nd session, patients feel significant relief from their condition. But this does not mean a full recovery.
A complete course of treatment should be performed to completely repair the damaged cartilage tissue of the intervertebral discs. It may include the following types of therapeutic effects:
- massage of the muscular frame of the back and lower back - allows you to normalize the tone of the muscle fiber, to restore its performance, to increase capillary blood supply and trophism;
- osteopathy in the treatment of lumbar pain allows you to eliminate infiltrative soft tissue edema by enhancing the processes of microcirculation of blood and lymph fluid;
- reflexology starts the processes of regeneration by using the hidden reserves of the human body;
- therapeutic gymnastics and kinesitherapy in the treatment of back pain in the lumbar region occupies an honorable place, allows you to fully restore the work of all muscles;
- physiotherapy is used to improve metabolism at the cellular level.
We recommend treatment of low back pain in chiropractic clinics. There, doctors have gained vast practical experience in treating such patients. If you have low back pain, never treat yourself. This is dangerous for your health.